Assessing the Multicultural and Social Justice Competencies of Career Development Practitioners
Keywords:multicultural, social justice, competencies, career, career development, practitioners, vocational psychology, psychology
The current focus on social justice in career practice necessitates identification and prioritization of specific competencies for multicultural counseling and social justice action (Blustein, 2006; Watson, 2010). The Multicultural Cultural and Social Justice Competencies (MCSJC) scale was used to examine (a) the importance of various competency domains and their composite factors to the profession of career development and (b) the self-assessment of competence by career practitioners on these core domains and factors. The study confirms the importance of multicultural counselling and social justice competencies to career practice and suggests that educational programs are doing a better job of facilitating awareness, which focuses on attitudes and
knowledge, than the skill development required to translate this awareness into culture-infused and social justice focused working alliances with clients. In particular, training in interventions at the organizational, community, and broader systems level is needed. Suggestions for curriculum development draw on the Culture-Infused Counseling model that undergirded the MCSJC scale.
Arthur, N. (2008). Qualification standards for career development practitioners. In J. Athanasou & R. Van Esbroeck (Eds.), International handbook of career guidance (pp. 303-323). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Arthur, N. (2013). Social justice and career guidance in the Age of Talent. International Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance, 14(1), 1-14. doi:10.1007/s10775-013-9255-x
Arthur, N., & Collins, S. (2011). Infusing culture in career counselling. Journal of Employment Counseling [Special Issue, doi:10.1002/j.2161-1920.2011.tb01098.x
Arthur, N., & Collins, S. (2005). Expanding culture-infused counselling in professional practice. In N. Arthur & S. Collins (Eds.), Culture-infused counselling: Celebrating the Canadian mosaic (pp. 151-212). Calgary, AB: Counselling Concepts.
Arthur, N., Collins, S., McMahon, M., & Marshall, C. (2009). Career practitioners’ views of social justice and barriers for practice. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 8(1), 22-31.
Arthur, N., Collins, S., Marshall, C., & McMahon, M. (2013). Social justice competencies and career development practices. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 47(2), 136-154.
Arthur, N., & McMahon, M. (2005). Multicultural career counseling: Theoretical applications of the Systems Theory Framework. The Career Development Quarterly, doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2005.tb00991.x
Baumgartner, M. S., & Schneider, D. E. (2010). Perceptions of women in management: A thematic analysis of razing the glass ceiling. Journal of Career Development, doi:10.1177/0894845309352242
Bloom, B. S. (Ed.). (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. Toronto, ON: Longmans, Green.
Blustein, D. L. (2006). The psychology of working: A new perspective for career development, counseling, and public policy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Cates, J., Schaefle, S., Smaby, M., Maddux, C., & LeBeauf, I. (2007). Comparing multicultural with general counseling knowledge and skill competency for students who completed counselor training. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 35(1), 26-39.
Collins, S. (2010a). The complexity of identity: Appreciating multiplicity and intersectionality. In N. Arthur & S. Collins (Eds.). Culture-infused counselling (2nd ed., pp. 247-258). Calgary, AB: Counselling Concepts.
Collins, S. (2010b). Women on the margins: Honouring multiple and intersecting cultural identities. In L. Ross. (Ed.). Counselling Women: Feminist Issues, Theory and Practice (pp. 21-50). Toronto, Ontario: Canadian Scholars’ Press / Women’s Press.
Collins, S., & Arthur, N. (2010a). Culture-infused counselling: A framework for multicultural competence. In N. Arthur & S. Collins (Eds.). Culture-infused counselling (2nd ed., pp. 45-65). Calgary, AB: Counselling Concepts.
Collins, S., & Arthur, N. (2010b). Culture-infused counseling: A fresh look at a classic framework of multicultural counseling competencies. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, doi:10.1080/09515071003798204
Collins, S., & Arthur, N. (2010c). Culture-infused counseling: A model for developing cultural competence. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, doi:10.1080/09515071003798212
Collins, S., Arthur, N. McMahon, M., & Bisson, S. (2014). Development of the Multicultural and Social Justice Competencies (MCSJC) Scale for Career Development Practitioners. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 13(1), 14-24.
Constantine, M. G. (2002). Predictors of satisfaction with counseling: Racial and ethnic minority clients’ attitudes toward counseling and ratings of their counselors’ general and multicultural counseling competence. Journal of Counseling Psychology, doi:10.1037/0022-0184.108.40.206
Constantine, M. G., & Ladany, N. (2000). Self-report multicultural competence scales: Their relationship to social desirability attitudes and multicultural case conceptualization ability. Journal of Counseling Psychology, doi:10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.11
Dickson, G. A., & Jepsen, D. A. (2007). Multicultural training experiences as predictors of multicultural competencies: Students’ perspectives. Counselor Education & Supervision, 47(2), 76-95.
Fassinger, R. E., & Gallor, S. M. (2006). Tools for remodeling the masters’ house: Advocacy and social justice in education and work. In R. L. Toporek, L. H. Gerstein, N. A. Fouad, G. Roysicar, & T. Israel, (Eds.), Handbook for social justice in counselling psychology: Leadership, vision, and action (pp. 256- 275). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fouad, N. A., Gerstein, L. H., & Toporek, R. L. (2006). Social justice and counseling psychology in context. In R. L. Toporek, L. H. Gerstein, N. A. Fouad, G. Roysicar, & T. Israel, (Eds.), Handbook for social justice in counseling psychology: Leadership, vision, and action (pp. 1- 16). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gamst, G., Dana, R. H., Der-Karabetian, A., Aragon, M., Arellano, L., Morrow, G., & Martenson, L. (2004). Cultural competency revised: The California Brief Multicultural Competence Scale. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development (American Counseling Association), 37(3), 163-183.
Hargrove, B. K., Creagh, M. G., & Kelly, D. B. (2003) Multicultural competencies in career counselling. In D. B. Pope-Davis, H. L. K. Coleman, W. M. Liu, & R. L. Toporek (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural competencies in counselling & psychology (pp. 392-405). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Hodge, P., Wright, S., Barraket, J., Scott, M., Melville, R., & Richardson, S. (2011). Revisiting ‘how we learn’ in academia: Practice-based learning exchanges in three Australian universities. Studies in Higher Education, doi:10.1080/03075070903501895
Kim, B. S. K., Cartwright, B. Y., Asay, P. A., & D’Andrea, M. J. (2003). A revision of the multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills survey-counselor edition. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 36(3), 161.
Knapik, M., & Miloti, A. (2006). Conceptualizations of competence and culture: Taking up the post-modern interest in social interaction. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, doi:10.1007/s10447006-9024-3
Leong, F. T. L. (2010). A cultural formulation approach to career assessment and career counseling: Guest editor’s introduction. Journal of Career Development, doi:10.1177/0894845310363708
McMahon, M., Arthur, N., & Collins, S. (2008a). Social justice and career development: Looking back, looking forward. Australian Journal of Career Development, 17(2), 21-29.
McMahon, M., Arthur, N., & Collins, S. (2008b). Social justice and career development: Views and experiences of Australian career development practitioners. Australian Journal of Career Development, 17(3), 15-25.
McWhirter, E. H., Blustein, D. L., & Perry, J. C. (2005). Annunciation: Implementing an emancipatory communitarian approach to vocational psychology. The Counselling Psychologist, doi:10.1177/0011000004273097
Paré, D. (2008). Discourse, positioning and deconstruction: Response to chapter 5. In G. Monk, J. Winslade, & S. Sinclair (Eds.), New horizons in multicultural counseling (pp. 137-140). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Parra-Cadona, J. R., Holtrop, K., & Cordova, D. (2005). “We are clinicians committed to cultural diversity and social justice”: Good intentions that can wane over time. Guidance & Counseling, 21(1), 36-46.
Pieterse, A. L. (2009). Teaching antiracism in counselor training: Reflections on a course. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 37(3), 114-124.
Ponterotto, J. G., Gretchen, D., Utsey, S. O., Rieger, B. P., & Austin, R. (2002). A revision of the multicultural counseling awareness scale. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 30(3), 153.
Pope, M. (2011). The career counseling with underserved populations model. Journal of Employment Counselling, doi:10.1002 /j.21611920.2011.tb01100.x
Pope-Davis, D., Breauz, C., & Liu, W. M. (1997). A multicultul immersion experience: Filling a void in multicultural training. In D. B. Pope-Davis & H. L. K. Coleman (Eds.). Multicultural counseling competencies: Assessment, education, and training, and supervision (pp. 237-241). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Repetto, E., Ferrer-Sama, P., & Manzano, N. (2008). Validation of the competency framework: A study of prior training and competency relevance. International
Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance, 8, 163-175.
Sampson, J. P., Dozier, V. C., & Colvin, G. P. (2011). Translating career theory to practice: The risk of unintentional social injustice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(3), 326-337.
Sinacore, A., Borgen, W. A., Daniluk, J., Kassan, A., Long, B. C., & Nicol, J. (2011). Canadian counselling psychologists’ contributions to applied psychology. Canadian Psychology, doi:10.1037/a0025549
Singh, A. A., Hofsess, C. D., Boyer, E., Kwong, A., Lau, A. S., McLain, M., & Haggins, K. (2010). Social justice and counseling psychology: Listening to the voices of doctoral trainees. The Counseling Psychologist, doi:10.1177/0011000010362559
Sue, D. W., Bernier, J. B., Durran, M., Feinberg, L., Pedersen, P., Smith, E., & Vasquez-Nuttall, E. (1982). Position paper: Crosscultural counseling competencies. Counseling Psychologist, doi:10.1177/0011000082102008
Sue, D. W., Arredondo, P., & McDavis, R. J. (1992). Multicultural counseling competencies and standards: A call to the profession. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70(4), 477-486.
Toporek, R. L., Gerstein, L. H., Fouad, N. A., Roysicar, G., & Israel, T. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook for social justice in counselling psychology: Leadership, vision, and action. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage.
Toporek, R. L., & Williams, R. A. (2006). Ethics and professional issues related to the practice of social justice in counselling psychology. In R. L. Toporek, L. H. Gerstein, N. A. Fouad, G. Roysicar, & T. Israel, (Eds.), Handbook for social justice in counselling psychology: Leadership, vision, and action (pp. 17-34). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Vespia, K. M., Fitzpatrick, M. E., Fouad, N. A., Kantamneni, N., & Chen, Y. (2010). Multicultural career counseling: A national survey of competencies and practices. The Career Development Quarterly, doi:10.1002/j.2161-0045.2010.tb00130.x
Watson, M. (2010). Career psychology in South Africa: Addressing and redressing social justice. Australian Journal of Career Development, 19(1), 24-29.
Wells, E. M., Delgado-Romero, E. A., & Shelton, K. L. (2010). An analysis of race and ethnic categories in career research from 1990 to 2007, Journal of Career Development, doi:10.1177/0894845309352241
Whitmarsh, L., Brown, D., Cooper, J., Hawkins-Rodgers, Y., & Wentworth, D. K. (2011). Choices and Challenges: A qualitative exploration of professional women’s career patterns. The Career Development Quarterly, doi:10.1002/j.21610045.2007.tb00079.x
Worthington, R. L., Soth-McNett,A., & Moreno, M. V. (2007). Multicultural counseling competencies research: A 20-year content analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, doi:10.1037/0022-018.104.22.1681
Young, R. A., & Lalande, V. (2011). Canadian counselling psychology: From defining moments to ways forward. Canadian Psychology, doi:10.1037/a0025165
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.