Developing Norms for the Hope-Action Inventory with a Substance Misuse Sample




career competencies, assessment, Hope-Action Inventory, substance use


The Hope-Action Inventory (HAI), a hope-based measure of career competencies, has demonstrated solid predictive validity for educational and vocational outcomes. The purpose of this study was to justify an expansion of the use of the HAI by examining group differences and establishing norms for interpreting HAI results with individuals with a history of substance misuse. Participants (N = 783) were recruited through substance use support centers and the Amazon Mechanical Turk online recruitment platform. Significant group differences were found among differing employment statuses and age groups. Normative data on the HAI with substance use populations are provided by age and employment status.   

Author Biography

Robinder P. Bedi, University of British Columbia

Associate Professor

Department of Education & Counselling Psychology and Special Education

Faculty of Education

University of British Columbia


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How to Cite

Currie, L., & Bedi, R. (2023). Developing Norms for the Hope-Action Inventory with a Substance Misuse Sample. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 22(2), 94–103.



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