The Effects of Hope on Student Engagement, Academic Performance, and Vocational Identity


  • Hyung Joon Yoon Al Akhawayn University
  • Hyoyeon In The Pennsylvania State University
  • Spencer G. Niles The College of William & Mary
  • Norman E. Amundson University of British Columbia
  • Barbara A. Smith University of British Columbia
  • Lauri Mills University of British Columbia


student engagement, academic performance, vocational identity, hope, Canada, United States of America, students


This study examines (1) the baseline measure of the Hope Centred Career Inventory (HCCI) in Canada and the United States and (2) the relationships among hope, student engagement, academic performance, and vocational identity, having hope as a primary predictor. The sample consisted of 1685 students at two universities in Canada and two universities in the United States. Normative scores of the HCCI for Canadian and U.S. students were derived from the data. The results indicate that hope has effects on both vocational identity and academic performance (GPA) via student engagement as a mediator. The effects of hope on GPA were found to be weak. Student engagement fully mediated the relationship with GPA and partially mediated the relationship with vocational identity.


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How to Cite

Joon Yoon, H. ., In, H., Niles, S. G., Amundson, N. E., Smith, B. A. ., & Mills, L. (2015). The Effects of Hope on Student Engagement, Academic Performance, and Vocational Identity. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 14(1), 34–45. Retrieved from