International and National Factors Affecting School-to-Work Transition for At-Risk Youth in Canada: An Integrative Review


  • Joan Versnel Dalhousie University
  • Christopher DeLuca University of South Florida
  • Nancy L. Hutchinson Queen's University
  • Allison Hill Queen's University
  • Peter Chin Queen's University


at-risk youth, school-to-work transition, work-based education


This paper provides an integrative review on the unemployment of at-risk youth and their transition to adulthood within Canadian and international contexts. Factors that influence school-towork transition for at-risk youth include: (a) international economic and social factors, (b) fixed individual and family factors, (c) individual and family factors amenable to change, (d) educational contexts, (e) workplace contexts, (f) school-to-work intersection, and (g) outcomes for individuals. We also consider the complexities of comparing and synthesizing these factors and, finally, suggest an agenda for action by Canadian researchers and policy makers based on the results of our integrative review.


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How to Cite

Versnel, J. ., DeLuca, C. ., Hutchinson, N. L., Hill, A. ., & Chin, P. (2011). International and National Factors Affecting School-to-Work Transition for At-Risk Youth in Canada: An Integrative Review. Canadian Journal of Career Development, 10(1), 21–31. Retrieved from